Sudan and Sri Lanka are two countries that have experienced protracted internal wars. The consequences of the wars have been devastating for human and livelihood security and the overall development of these countries. Both have records of failed attempts to resolve their conflicts by political means. More recently, both have been going through internationally facilitated peace processes which have also been linked to post-conflict development. The studies in this collection compare these two war-torn countries. Each intra-state conflict has its distinct historical, political, economic and cultural characteristics. Yet there are parallels and similarities between two developing countries in which post-colonial state formation has become mired in prolonged anti-state armed conflict. This book addresses from different angles and levels the issues of conflict resolution, peace preparation, people’s perceptions of the impact of conflict on their lives, war-induced grievances, relief, vulnerability, poverty, livelihood revival and social mobility, and development. This book draws attention to the need to internalize grievances generated by protracted war into processes of conflict resolution and peace building. An underlying message to policy makers is that the consequences suffered by large sections of the civilian populations due to war must be addressed in order to build sustainable peace.